Radiation is a pattern of energy that moves from one place to another in wave-like motions. It can penetrate materials or objects. There is radiation in microwaves, lights and radios. However, when used in the medical field, under nuclear medicine, radiation can diagnose and treat illness and disease. It is an important factor in improving medical conditions and prolonging the lives of patients.
Antoine Henri Becquerel was born in Paris, France on December 15, 1852. He was born into a family of scientists, which included his father and grandfather. His interest in science developed while tinkering around in his father’s laboratory as a child. The relationship between him and his father moved the young boy towards scientific research. He was one of the first scientists to discover spontaneous radioactivity. As a research physicist, Henri developed laws of radiation of light from phosphorescent substances. In 1903, Henri Becquerel shared the Nobel Prize for Physics with two other Physicists, Pierre and Marie Curie.
Niels Bohr was born in Copenhagen, Denmark in 1885. He was not only a physicist, but a soccer player too. After receiving his doctorate, he took a study grant in England in 1908. While there, his focus was on the structure of the atom. He too became a Nobel Prize winner. Although Niels was a professor at the University of Copenhagen, he was also the director of the Institute for Theatrical Physics. It was during World War II, that he made Copenhagen a refuge for some of the greatest physicists of that period. He provided a safe haven for many Jewish scientists who escaped Germany under the rule of Hitler.
James Chadwick was born on October 20, 1891, in Cheshire, England. His parents were John Joseph Chadwick and Anne Mary Knowles. In his early years, he attended Manchester University in 1908. Three years later, he graduated from the Honors School of Physics in 1911. He obtained his M.Sc. degree in 1913. His studies and work show that he was a busy man, for in 1932, he discovered the existence of neutrons. With this new discovery, Chadwick opened doors leading to the fission of Uranium and the creation of the Atomic Bomb. Professor Chadwick had accomplished a lot during his lifetime, including the Nobel Prize award for physics in 1935.
Compton, Author Holly
Author Holly Compton was born and raised in Wooster, Ohio. The date of his birth is September 10, 1892. At one point in his life, he was considering a career in religion, but his father encouraged him that he would be better suited for a career in science. Taking his father’s advice, he became an instructor of physics at the University of Minnesota, staying in that position for a year before moving on to higher accomplishments. After years of contributing scientific research data, he became one of the first pioneers of high-energy physics. He received the Nobel Prize in 1927 for his study of high-energy photons.
Coolidge, William David
William David Coolidge is a physicist who eventually studied the components of the X-ray in his career. He was born not far from Boston, Massachusetts, in a town called Hudson. His date of birth was October 23, 1873. He went from doing farming chores as a child to obtaining a scholarship in electrical engineering, which included the subject matter of chemistry. During his studies, he had a strong urge for research and laboratory work. His career in science led him to inventing the Tungsten lamp and contributing in x-ray applications. He gained notoriety for improving the x-ray tube.
Curie, Pierre and Marie
Pierre and Marie Curie are a husband and wife team who became noted physicists. Together they discovered radium. Their other accomplishments include radiotherapy and the study of medicine. Through their approach, they learned the elements of treating medical diseases using radioactive material. These two scientists came from two different backgrounds, she Polish and Pierre a Frenchman. Marie was born on November 7, 1867 in Warsaw, Poland. Pierre was born in Paris, France on May 15, 1859. They both have received numerous Nobel prizes for their work in physics.
De Hevesy, George
On August 1, 1885, George de Hevesy emerged into this world. He was born in Budapest. During his college years, he spent his time studying at the Budapest University and he attended Berlin Technical University. However, his doctor’s degree came from the University of Freiburg in 1908. By 1910, his studies led him to England, where he and another chemist performed the first radioactive tracer experiment. As a chemist, he did research investigations on the chemical behavior of molten salts and the use of radium and lead isotopes. In 1923, he discovered the science element Hafnium. In 1943, George received the Nobel Prize in chemistry for his work on isotopes.
Edison, Thomas Alva
Tomas Edison was a master inventor. He was a busy man because he had over 1,000 inventions. At the age of 21, he created the first telegraphic vote-recording machine. This inventor was born in Milan Ohio, on February 11, 1847. From his early years as a child, he was home-schooled with his mother as his teacher. He was very curious and loved reading books and performing experiments. The first industrial research laboratory was built in the United States in 1876, and it was Tomas Edison’s creation. He named it Menlo Park Laboratory. He labored there for four years turning out one invention after the other.
Robley Evans was born sometime during 1907, in University Place, Nebraska. He passed away on December 31, 1995, in Paradise Valley, Arizona. However, before his passing, he contributed his knowledge of science and physics to the medical field. For the most part, his contributions were in the study of radium poisoning. Professor Evans built the first whole body counter that measured radium in patients. He also developed the Ion Chamber. It was through the Evans’ studies and information on radium that led to the understanding of this element and the negative effect that it has on the human body. This information caused the government to come up with standard guidelines for radiation use and protection.
In 1915, Gioacchino Failla started his career at Memorial Hospital in New York. While there, he enlisted the first program or research in improving the application of radiation on patients. In 1922, he developed the first human phantom, using an x-ray machine. With the new x-ray unit in his laboratory, he was determined to find out the effects of filtration in the human body. His other accomplishment includes developing the Radiation Research Society. He also founded the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements.
Enrico Fermi was born in Rome Italy. His date of birth is September 29, 1901. As a child, in elementary school he loved math equations. However, attending Scuola Normale Superiore University, he wrote an essay that resembled a doctoral thesis. That essay impressed his instructor. Enrico did such things as gave lectures on the topic of quantum theory. He did important work on establishing the results of artificial radioactivity and neutrons. In 1942, Fermi and his team of scientist managed to bring about the first controlled release of nuclear energy, which led Fermi into participating in constructing a bomb.
Otto Hahn, a German Physical chemist was born on March 8, 1879. In 1897, he started studying chemistry and took his doctorate exam in 1901. Following his work and education in London, he discovered radiothorium. However, he continued to do research and in 1907, he discovered yet another element, Mesothorium. As the years passed, Otto went on to discover new things in collaboration with chemistry and physics.
Hess, Victor F.
Victor Franz Hess was born in Austria. The date of his birth is June 24, 1883. As a young adult, he attended Graz University for 4 years, from 1901 to 1905. He received his doctor’s degree in 1910. The two major fields of study that was of interest to him were that of high-energy elementary-particles physics and cosmic ray astrophysics. His experiments had him in a helium balloon testing ionization 500 feet above the ground. Victor’s accomplishments include discovering cosmic radiation. In 1936, Hess received the Nobel Prize in Physics along with Carl David Anderson.
Joliot-Curie, Irene & Frederick Joliot
Irene Joliot Curie is the daughter of Pierre and Marie Curie. She was born in Paris France on September 12, 1897. Marie married Frederick Joliot in 1926. Like her parents, Irene and Frederick were a husband and wife team who both studied and bought contributions into the field of physics. Before her marriage, Irene was interested in radioactivity. Another accomplishment of hers is the fact that she helped bring the use of e-rays during World War I.
Lawrence, Ernest O
Ernest Lawrence was born in Canton, South Dakota, on August 8, 1901. His parents were Norwegian immigrants. After high school, Ernest attended several universities, obtaining a B.A. in chemistry from the University of South Dakota. He earned a Master’s degree from the University of Minnesota and obtained his PH.D., from Yale University. His educational pursuits led him to being the youngest professor at Berkley University in 1930. His contributions in science include his invention of the cyclotron and the calutron isotope separator. In 1936, Lawrence created the first radiation laboratory where he and others worked on experiments around the clock. There he worked on nuclear physics, medical physics, nuclear chemistry and photosynthesis.
Lise Meitner was born in Vienna in 1878. She was a Swedish nuclear physicist, working beside her mentor, Otto Hahn. Together the pair discovered the element Protactinium. They also worked on the subject matter of Uranium and what effects that neutron bombardment had on uranium. It was Meitner and her nephew who discovered fission, after they had unintentionally split the uranium nucleus during an experimental session. She also worked on atomic theory, which led her to the discovery of the atomic bomb, which she refused to work on.
Muller, Hermann Joseph
Hermann Muller was an American born physicist in the United States. He was born in New York City, on December 21, 1890. His father instilled in him the interest of the universe and the process of evolution. He attended public school in Harlem as a child. In high school, he and a friend created the first science club. While attending college, he founded the Student’s Biology Club. He spent most of his career unlocking the secrets of science. One of his discoveries was noticing that x-rays could induce artificial mutations in genes. He also did experimental procedures on the natural mutations of the fruit fly. In 1946, Muller won the Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine.
Herbert Parker immigrated to the United States in 1938. He was a British born physicist with his subject matter being on the topics of health and radiology. He studied radiation therapy, laying the foundation for radiation protection. His studies and expertise led him to establish a health physics program that would teach safety measures for those who were to create the first atom bombs. Another of his accomplishments during his career was that of the free air ionization chamber, which he developed. When moving to Washington State in 1944, he developed the radiation protection program.
Edith Quimbly contributions as a physicists aided cancer patients. She was famous for her work in nuclear medicine. Through her work, she discovered the limits on the dosage of radiation that a person’s body could withstand. Quimbly help create the radiological research laboratory at Columbia University. In the lab, she discovered the use of radioactive isotopes in treating thyroids and brain tumors. In 1940, she received the American Radium Society’s Janeway Award.
Rantgen, Wilhelm Conrad
Wilhelm was born in Germany on March 27, 1845. Even though he was born in Lennep, he and his family lived in the Netherlands, moving there when Welhelm was three-years-old. Upon his graduation from high school, he entered into the University of Utrecht, where he studied physics. In 1869, he received his PH.D.; his educational pursuits took him to Wurzburg and Strasborg. He became a lecturer and then a professor of physics. His contributions to science include developing the first “rontgenogram.”
Rutherford’s place of birth is Nelson, New Zealand. His date of birth is August 30, 1871. As a youngster, he attended government schools, but by the time he was old enough to go to high school, he entered Nelson Collegiate School. After graduating, he began his college life, attending the University of New Zealand. He received a M.A. degree as well as a B.Sc. degree. His accomplishments include designing experiments with high frequency, alternating currents. He went on to invent a detector for electromagnetic waves. His work also led him to discover that all radioactivity elements emitted two kinds of radiation charges, that of positive and negative.
Glenn Seaborg was born on April 19, 1912, in Ishpeming, Michigan. However, his family moved to California. It was there that he graduated from high school. In 1929, Seaborg enrolled into the University of California, where he received his PH.D., in chemistry. He went from being a student to becoming a professor of chemistry at the university. His university involvement began in 1929, and he stayed there until 1942. He then took a four-year leave in order to lead the plutonium project at the University of Chicago Metallurgical Laboratory. Dr. Seaborg participated in the discovery of transuranium elements and the identification of over 100 isotope elements.
Lauriston Taylor was born in Brooklyn, New York. His father got him interested in physics and Chemistry. However, he taught himself the principals of plumbing and electricity without going to a technical school for those particular studies. When he decided that he wanted a degree in physics, he attended Cornell University and gained his doctorate. Dr. Taylor’s accomplishments include the development of standards for measuring x-rays. He also set up safety guidelines for its use. Lauriston Taylor also developed the first National Standards Laboratory from which he discovered the comparison of radiation dosimeters.
Thomson, Joseph John
Joseph John Thomson was born on December 18, 1856, in Cheethum Hill. He was of British decent. His educational background includes him becoming a minor scholar, a second wrangler, a lecturer and a master. He even became an honorary professor of physics in London. While being a professor at the Cavendish Laboratory, he performed many experiments on electromagnetism and atomic particles. Thomson received the Nobel Prize in physics in 1906.